Black cottonwood series NVCS (2009) Populus balsamifera ssp. Black cottonwood leaf buds and stems protected by resins which allow for early leaf growth; the resins are also medicine for people (Populus balsamifera ssp. Populus L. – cottonwood Species: Populus balsamifera L. – balsam poplar Subordinate Taxa ... black cottonwood Legal Status. This article was written by Jessica Rouske and Sarah Verlinde. Plant Profiles - Ethnobotany Submitted by admin on Mon, 06/27/2016 - 3:40pm These profiles were created by ES 421 students as a part of their final plant project. The following points should help you to identify a black cottonwood. Effect of harvest cycle and spacing on productivity of black cottonwood in intensive culture. The pale yellow sapwood is usually very thin, and is clearly demarcated from the darker heartwood. Photo by Susan McDougal. USDA PLANTS Database. It is known as a good light This species is the tallest and largest of the three cottonwoods, and can reach up to 150 feet in height. Photo by Linda Swartz. It is known as a good light wood. Populus is the Latin name for poplar; balsamifera (“balsam-bearing”) refers to the resinous substance in the buds of the tree, thought to resemble balsam. Both Cottonwood Trees and Willow Trees produce their own rooting hormone, called auxin. Small native tree or large shrub growing to 25-35 ft. high and 12-20 ft. wide. Ref… ... Populis balsamifera, Black Cottonwood. Although the flowers are inconspicuous,this species is well known for its fuzzy fruits, which during spring and early summer float down from the trees, creating the appearance of a light warm-season snowfall. Left to right: Mostly certain these are Fremont Cottonwood (Populus fremontii) leaves from along the middle Missouri River (South Dakota? Tolerates moisture. Black cottonwood is a large deciduous tree belonging to the willow family (Salicaceae). Brayshaw – black cottonwood Subordinate Taxa. black bears in anchorage, alaska. Economic uses of the black cottonwood include course lumber and the manufacture of wood products such as paper. The Spanish name for cottonwoods is “álamo,” leading the conclusion that the proper Spanish name for this tree is “álamo negro.” This name has lent itself to some famous places in America, such as the Alamo in San Antonio, site of a famous battle for Texan independence, as well as Los Alamos, New Mexico, site of American nuclear laboratories. Traditional Uses of Cottonwood While most herbalists are using cottonwood buds to relieve inflammation, pain, and as an antimicrobial, there are many additional … Common names are from state and federal lists. Populus balsamifera ssp. “We’re fortunate to have a campus with so many native plants,” says ethnobotany PhD candidate Fiona Hamersley Chambers, pointing to Garry oak and historic camas meadows, Oregon grape, salal, grand fir, Douglas fir, black cottonwood and especially springbank clover—a food that was traditionally cultivated by First Peoples. southcentral alaska. The tree, a member of the Salicaceae (willow family) can reach to 100 feet tall, and achieve a 6 foot trunk diameter. Black Cottonwood Forest – Portland Walking among forests of giant cottonwoods or any gigantic trees is a humbling and profound experience. Black Cottonwood contains a large amount of rooting hormone, just like willows, so it is be useful for plant propagation. trichocarpa temporarily flooded forest alliance, Populus balsamifera ssp. WSDOT Ethnobotany and Cultural Resources M 3120.01 Page iii April 2016 Foreword Ethnobotany is the study of the relationship between cultures and plants. Prunus emarginata Bitter Cherry. Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast: Washington, Oregon, British Columbia and Alaska. The resin is used in medicine and perfume. Small native tree or large shrub growing to 45 ft. tall and 15-25 ft. wide. 11. It grows in my backyard along the Raging River and throughout the Snoqualmie Valley. This native tree grows rapidly. trichocarpa (Torr. The fluffy seeds can travel 20 miles on a breeze, they can be carried on streams and rivers and rest in a vernal pool. It is one of the largest of some 40 species of Populus and is the tallest, fastest-growing hardwood in the western United States. Black Cottonwood Tree Identification. Ethnobotany Black cottonwood resin has disinfectant properties and has been used by Coast Salish people for sore throats and coughs as well as being applied directly to wounds to prevent infection. Leaves: leathery/waxy dark green upper surface, with a lighter green underside. Genetic variation and productivity of Populus trichocarpa and its hybrids. Ethnobotany Inner bark & cambium were eaten Buds used medicinally Habitat Value Nesting habitat for eagles & osprey, which are large birds of prey Sponsors City of Bellingham Washington State Department of Ecology Black Cottonwood. Threatened and Endangered Information: This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Here in the Pacific Northwest, Native Americans utilized an incredible diversity of trees for edible cambium including Western Hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis), Bigleaf Maple (Acer macrophyllum), Red Alder, Lodgepole Pine, Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides), and Black Cottonwood.The air alighting with Cottonwood down is a pretty dramatic phenological … The leaf blades are oval to heart-shaped, with a point on the end; the petioles are 1-2 in. Leaf shapes can vary between diamond or heart-shaped with a finely serrated margin. Paddling into quiet Willamette River off-channel alcoves that are ringed with stately cottonwoods is like entering into an aquatic cathedral with … The more tender inner bark was used for food in the spring and summer, and old dead leaves were boiled and used in baths to treat body aches and stomach problems. Mailstop Code: 1103 Prunus virginiana Chokecherry. Balsamifera means balsam (aromatic resin)-bearing. Hitchcock and Cronquist describe 38 species in Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. & Gray ex Hook.) 1985. Click on a place name to … The base of the leaves can be either wedge or heart shaped. I98 1. Ethnobotanical Application(s): Throughout history, black cottonwood has been valued as a commercially important tree. Black cottonwood resin has disinfectant properties and has been used by Coast Salish people for sore throats and coughs as well as being applied directly to wounds to prevent infection. Relationships: There are more than 300 species of willow worldwide, mostly in the northern hemisphere. trichocarpa is a large cottonwood tree of the western United States. The root systems help stabilize the soil, which is especially important for the restoration and conservation of riparian (river) areas they are commonly found growing in. ), Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides) from the Tetons in Wyoming, and Black Cottonwood or a Black / Narrowleaf Cottonwood (Populus angustifolia) hybrid from the Great Basin National Park, Nevada. 2004. Distribution: Widely distributed tree in western North America, Alaska to California, as far east as North Dakota. Ethnobotany Black cottonwood resin has disinfectant properties and has been used by Coast Salish people for sore throats and coughs as well as being applied directly to wounds to prevent infection. Trichocarpa means with hairy fruits, referring to its fluffy seeds. Bark: Mature bark is brown and rugged and looks similar to Douglas-fir’s bark. This plant has no children Legal Status. spring. balsamifera. Native American Ethnobotany (University of Michigan - Dearborn) (POBA2) Habitat: In Washington state, this tree can be found along wetlands, streambanks, lake shores, and moist woods. The light weight, fine, and evenly textured wood is one of the popular lumber types for the manufacturing of boxes and pallets. Also like willows, leaf buds contain salicin which is a powerful anti-inflamatory and pain-reducer. The Fremont Cottonwood, also known as the Western Cottonwood or the Rio Grande Cottonwood, Populus fremontii, occurs in California east to Utah and Arizona and south into northwest Mexico. bears. Black cottonwood’s have a high nitrate uptake making them useful tools for buffering agricultural areas. Can be used at a 10 – 25% dilution with other carrier oils such as jojoba or other herbal... Continue Reading The infused oil smells incredible and is highly beneficial in salves, gels, or massage oils for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Black cottonwood. Flowers/Fruits: drooping catkins. The name of another New Mexican town, Alamogordo, means “the fat cottonwood tree.”. Cottonwood Populus balsamifera This is one of my all time favorite resin buds to infuse. The bark is rough and dark-colored, thus “black cottonwood”. They are covered in a resinous substance that is perfumed and smells like balsam. Last Saturday JT, Ethnobotany Guide Extraordinaire, lead us, ethnobots, on a foraging walkabout around the Seattle Jackson Place, Judkins Park and International District. Exact identification of these trees and shrubs is extremely difficult. They inhabit riparian areas, especially along streams. Vegetative characters are variable even on the same plant. Cottonwood is a well-known, common tree along rivers and streams throughout the West.Cultivation of hybrid poplars (Populus trichocarpa x. P. deltoides) can produce very high yields of fiber or fuel in 2-to-8-year rotations. Balsam is a term for various plant saps with a pleasing odor. Vancouver (BC): Lone Pine Publishing. Black Cottonwood contains a large amount of rooting hormone, just like willows, so it is useful for plant propagation. Black Cottonwood is the largest hardwood tree in western North America. trichocarpa range map. Medicines and perfumes were made from balsam in Europe, and it plays a role in Christian rituals. Black Cottonwood contains a large amount of rooting hormone, just like willows, so it is useful for plant propagation. Native Americans and herbal products companies use the resin for medicinal purposes as well, particularly for respiratory ailments. Occasionally slightly lighter, with a dark brown or purplish hue. Populus balsamifera ssp. Black cottonwoods. Both Cottonwood Trees and Willow Trees produce their own rooting hormone, called auxin. Turner, Nancy J., 1973, The Ethnobotany of the Bella Coola Indians of British Columbia, Syesis 6:193-220, page 210 Populus balsamifera ssp. sow bear looks out of her winter hibernation hole high up in a broken off cottonwood tree and watches a raven that is squawking nearby. The tree develops a straight cylindrical trunk with a narrow crown. Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics (STEM), Center on Reinventing Public Education (CRPE), http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/blackcottonwood.html, https://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/cs_pobat.pdf, http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection/taxon.php?Taxon=Populus%20trichocarpa. Both Cottonwood Trees and Willow Trees produce their own rooting hormone, called auxin. Black cottonwood is a Pacific Northwest native deciduous tree which can eventually grow to a height of 150’ with a width of 40’. Related Species: White Poplar (Populus alba) Balsam Poplar (Populus balsamifera) Eastern Cottonwood (Populus deltoides) Bigtooth Aspen (Populus grandidentata) Black Poplar (Populus nigra) European Aspen (Populus tremula) Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides) Related Articles: ... ETHNOBOTANY. Black cottonwood also has been planted as windbreaks and shelterbelts and it is commonly used for screening along motorways in Europe. HEILMAN,P., AND D. V. PEABODY. Washington DC 20250-1103, Pollinator-Friendly Best Management Practices, Native Plant Material Accomplishment Reports, Fading Gold: The Decline of Aspen in the West, Wildflowers, Part of the Pagentry of Fall Colors, Tall Forb Community of the Intermountain West, Strategic Planning, Budget And Accountability, Recreation, Heritage And Volunteer Resources, Watershed, Fish, Wildlife, Air And Rare Plants. Photo by Charles Webber, California Academy of Science. Black Cottonwood make millions of seeds, usually in the last week of May and the seeds are dispersed on the winds- casting themselves as far from the mother tree as possible. Formerly: Populus balsamifera spp. The bark is grey and covered with lenticels, becoming thick and deeply fissured on old trees. Trichocarpa means “hairy-fruited,” referring to the cottony fluff that helps disperse the minute seeds for long distances. The aggressive root systems of black cottonwood are effective soil Brayshaw Black Cottonwood USDA POBAT This condensed list of western Washington plants was created by Scott Clay-Poole, PhD. Color/Appearance: Often completely black, with little or no discernible grain. The wood is also used for fuel. Black Cottonwood (nekw’nikw’az) This is our largest native broadleaf tree, growing to heights of 24 to 38 meters. trichocarpa; photos by Heidi Bohan) The amazing smell of these barks, roots and buds as they are gathered and prepared are each so distinctive, each with their own medicine. trichocarpa. Collection and study from a 2016 road trip. Willows The Willow Family– Salicaceae Salix sp. During spring and summer, the light green leaves of the tall trees often indicate a source of water in the deserts the Great Basin or Modoc Plateau. Black cottonwoods are very fast growing and are easy to propagate with stem cuttings. The cottony seeds are often seen drifting in a summer breeze, giving the tree its common name of Cottonwood. Conservation: Black cottonwood is a very fast-growing and potentially large tree, easy to establish, and useful for shade and ornament. […] Notable feature: The winter buds are yellow-brown and very pointed. Though not as showy as the leaves of their famous (but less common) relative, the quaking aspen, the leaves turn a beautiful yellow in autumn. A cottonwood in Willamette Mission State Park near Salem, Oregon, holds the national and world records. Black Cottonwood. The black cottonwoods are still used commercially for particle board, plywood and veneer. 1400 Independence Ave., SW Black Cottonwood USDA POBAT: Bella Coola Drug, Pulmonary Aid Infusion of buds and animal fat taken for whooping cough. For questions regarding the UWB/CC Plant Tour, contact Sarah at severlin@uw.edu. - black cottonwood stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images Pojar, J and MacKinnon, A. The name of another New Mexican town, Alamogordo, means “the fat cottonwood tree.” Economic uses of the black cottonwood include course lumber and the manufacture of wood products such as paper. The trees are fast-growing taking 30-75 years to reach maturity. 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